Gospel Music

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Legendary R&B and Soul Shows from 1966 Vol.4 (DVD) Various - The !!!! Beat: Legendary R&B and Soul Shows from 1966 Vol.4... Art-Nr.: BVD20129

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Vol.6, (DVD) Legendary R&B and Soul Shows from 1966 Various - The !!!! Beat: Vol.6, (DVD) Legendary R&B and Soul Shows from... Art-Nr.: BVD20131

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Dreamer (LP, 180gram Vinyl) Bobby 'Blue' Bland: Dreamer (LP, 180gram Vinyl) Art-Nr.: BAF18029

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29 Scorching Classics From 1968 (CD) Various - Sweet Soul Music: 29 Scorching Classics From 1968 (CD) Art-Nr.: BCD16973

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Look Out! We Got Soul - Sampler Sweet Soul Music (CD) Various - Sweet Soul Music: Look Out! We Got Soul - Sampler Sweet Soul... Art-Nr.: BCD17033

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Dancin' All Around The World - The Complete Vee-Jay Recordings (2-CD) Little Richard: Dancin' All Around The World - The Complete... Art-Nr.: CD512193

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Tell Mama (180gram Vinyl) Etta James: Tell Mama (180gram Vinyl) Art-Nr.: BAF18026

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28 Scorching Classics From 1969 Various - Sweet Soul Music: 28 Scorching Classics From 1969 Art-Nr.: BCD16974

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24 Scorching Classics From 1970 Various - Sweet Soul Music: 24 Scorching Classics From 1970 Art-Nr.: BCD16975

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The Drifters - The Drifters Rock (CD) The Drifters: The Drifters - The Drifters Rock (CD) Art-Nr.: BCD17278

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Close But No Cigar (CD) Delvon Lamarr Organ Trio: Close But No Cigar (CD) Art-Nr.: CDCLMN12019

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(Colemine Records) 10 tracks, digipack The debut album from Seattle's Delvon Lamarr Organ Trio. The group channels old-school organ combos like The Meters and Booker T & The MGs, but are making it fresh and feel new again! We couldn't be...
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Close But No Cigar (LP) Delvon Lamarr Organ Trio: Close But No Cigar (LP) Art-Nr.: LPCLMN12019

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(Colemine Records) 10 tracks, includes Download Card, gatefold cover The debut album from Seattle's Delvon Lamarr Organ Trio. The group channels old-school organ combos like The Meters and Booker T & The MGs, but are making it fresh and...
$26.95
Live At The Fillmore West (CD) King Curtis: Live At The Fillmore West (CD) Art-Nr.: CDMOC13519

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(Music On CD) 14 Tracks - Original Atlantic 1971 - Professionally, Curtis had a great and successful time in the summer of 1971. Aretha Franklin's 'Live at Fillmore West' album was a big hit and he had just contributed two tracks to John...
$16.15
Suey - Featuring Jimi Hendrix (7inch, 45rpm, PS) Jayne Mansfield: Suey - Featuring Jimi Hendrix (7inch, 45rpm, PS) Art-Nr.: 45S323

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(Sundazed) 2-Track Single - Rare recordings from 1967 with Jimi Hendrix - guitar! Film goddess Jayne Mansfield on the A-side and Ricky Mason on the B-side with a previously unreleased track!
$13.99
Early Classics (CD) Edwin Starr: Early Classics (CD) Art-Nr.: CD55212

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(Motown) 18 tracks
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 I Can't Stand Myself When You Touch Me (CD, Japan) James Brown: I Can't Stand Myself When You Touch Me (CD,... Art-Nr.: CDPOCP1853

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(Polydor Japan) 12 tracks 1968 Stereo - sealed new stock copy (Bear Family Records)
$53.95
Back In Business - The Nashville Sessions (CD) Frank Bey: Back In Business - The Nashville Sessions (CD) Art-Nr.: CDNB006

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(Nola Blue Records) 11 Tracks (42:28) - Digipack - The 2018 comeback album of the great soul blues artist!
$21.55
The Atlantic Singles Collection 1967-1970 (2-CD) Aretha Franklin: The Atlantic Singles Collection 1967-1970 (2-CD) Art-Nr.: CDATL5805

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(Atlantic-Rhino) 34 Tracks - The impressive career of soul legend Aretha Franklin lasted over 50 years. The singer wrote one of the most important chapters of her career at Atlantic Records. In 1967 she moved to the American label, where...
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While The City Sleeps (CD) The Spinners: While The City Sleeps (CD) Art-Nr.: CDTOP481

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(Ace Records) 25 tracks with 16 page booklet The Detroit vocal group’s “2nd Time Around” album, originally released in 1970, with 13 bonus tracks including 10 previously unissued masters from the Motown vaults. The majority of tracks...
$18.31
Try Me (LP with CD, 180g Vinyl, Ltd., RSD) James Brown: Try Me (LP with CD, 180g Vinyl, Ltd., RSD) Art-Nr.: LP782703

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(Rat Pack Records) 14 tracks - Digitally remastered in 96kHz/24-bit by 'Mam Productions' -Purple Vinyl
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Merry Clayton (LP, Ltd., Maroon Vinyl) Merry Clayton: Merry Clayton (LP, Ltd., Maroon Vinyl) Art-Nr.: LPRGM0705

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(Real Gone Music) 11 tracks Merry's 1971 Soul Tour de Force - 1st ever LP reissue - Pressed on maroon vinyl and limited to 1200 copies She's from Gert Town, New Orleans. The daughter of a Baptist reverend. Almost everyone calls her "Baby...
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Step By Step - The Complete Pop Hits (2-CD) Joe Simon: Step By Step - The Complete Pop Hits (2-CD) Art-Nr.: CDRGM0756

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(Real Gone Music) 35 Tracks Over a Career Spanning Five Decades, Joe Simon Has Established Himself as One of the Premiere Voices in R&B “The Mouth of the South” Has Racked Up 35 Pop and 50 R&B Hits But Because Simon’s Hits Were Evenly...
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New Breed Rhythm 'n' Blues (LP) Various: New Breed Rhythm 'n' Blues (LP) Art-Nr.: LPKENT509

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(Kent) 14 tracks We coined the term New Breed R&B in 2001 when Our inspired selection from the original Kent and Modern labels caught musical zeitgeist. Six CDs on, these offerings are still eagerly anticipat. and the highlights on vinyl...
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Northern Soul's Classiest Rarities (LP) Various: Northern Soul's Classiest Rarities (LP) Art-Nr.: LPKENT515

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(Kent) 14 tracks Kent's Northern Soul's Classiest Rarities series has showcased high quality soul dance records from the 60s to the early 70s, beloved by collectors and dancers who have had their fill of the 'Top 500'. Of the 144 tracks...
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Lay This Burden Down (LP) Mary Love: Lay This Burden Down (LP) Art-Nr.: LPKENT512

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(Kent) 14 tracks As the opening voice on the UK Kent label in 1982, Mary Love has always held a special place in our hearts. This in turn led to her headlining at the first ever Cleethorpes Northern Soul weekender- and appearing at...
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Wigan Casino Soul Club (LP, 180g Vinyl) Various: Wigan Casino Soul Club (LP, 180g Vinyl) Art-Nr.: LPL190

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(Charly) 16 tracks In the early hours of Sunday morning, 23rd September 1973, Jim McClusky, lead singer with local band 'Forum', was packing up his gear after another night at the 'Emp' (Empress Hall aka the Casino Club). As he...
$29.11
Here You Are - The Best Of Billy Ocean (2-CD) Billy Ocean: Here You Are - The Best Of Billy Ocean (2-CD) Art-Nr.: CDSNY3022

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(Sony Music) 31 Tracks - For the 30th anniversary of "When The Going Gets Tough" Here You Are: The Best Of Billy Ocean celebrates the career of one of the most successful British pop stars with great cover versions and all hits. The...
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101 Stax - The Greatest Tracks From The Legendary Record Label (5-CD) Various: 101 Stax - The Greatest Tracks From The... Art-Nr.: CDUMC10114

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(Spectrum) 101 Tracks - Ecopack - Stax R&B Soul Label Story!
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The Many Faces Of Tina Turner (3-CD) Various: The Many Faces Of Tina Turner (3-CD) Art-Nr.: CDMBB7269

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(Music Brokers Mexico) 42 Tracks - Digipack - One of the most dynamic soul singers in music history, Tina Turner emanated sex appeal from every pore in a career as a performer that began in the moment she entered the stage as lead singer...
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Tamla-Motown - Early Classics (CD) Jimmy Ruffin: Tamla-Motown - Early Classics (CD) Art-Nr.: CDSPEC1232

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(Spectrum) 18 Tracks - 1965-1974!
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For Your Precious Love  (LP) The Impressions: For Your Precious Love (LP) Art-Nr.: LPVJS1075

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(Vee Jay) 12 tracks - Re-issue of the original 1963 'Stereo' 'Vee Jay' LP album
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Superstar Series, Vol.5 (LP) Junior Walker & The All Stars: Superstar Series, Vol.5 (LP) Art-Nr.: LPM5105X

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(Motown) 10 tracks - Original 'Motown' recordings - Sealed 'Cut-out' LP
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Just For You (LP) Aretha Franklin: Just For You (LP) Art-Nr.: LP782757

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(Rat Pack) 16 tracks - 'Columbia' recordings from the early 1960s
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The World Of Ike & Tina Live! (CD) Ike & Tina Turner: The World Of Ike & Tina Live! (CD) Art-Nr.: CDBGO1349

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(Beat Goes On-BGO) 21 Tracks - The Ike & Tina Turner Revue Live 1972! Recorded live in 1972, these recordings present Ike & Tina in top form. With hits like 'Get Back', 'Honky Tonk Women', 'I Wish It Would Rain' and 'River Deep, Mountain...
$18.31
Spiritual Eternal - The Complete Warner Bros. Studio Recordings (2-CD) Alice Coltrane: Spiritual Eternal - The Complete Warner Bros.... Art-Nr.: CDRGM0692

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(Real Gone Music) 18 Tracks - 6-Panel Deluxe Digipack with 24 page booklet - Contains the complete Warner Brothers studio recordings 1976-1978! After John Coltrane's death, Alice Coltrane began a solo career with the same uncompromising...
$26.95
King Solomon (LP, 180g Vinyl) Solomon Burke: King Solomon (LP, 180g Vinyl) Art-Nr.: LPPPAN18158

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(Pure Pleasure) 12 tracks - re-release of the original 1968 'Atlantic' LP album on 180g vinyl According to the Bible King Solomon was a wise and prudent ruler whose exploits made him a folk-hero to his people and a great leader among...
$30.19
Doré - L.A. Soul Sides Vol.2 (CD) Various: Doré - L.A. Soul Sides Vol.2 (CD) Art-Nr.: CDKEND433

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(Ace Records) 24 Tracks - 16 page color booklet - This is the second and final volume of our Doré Soul story. As with the first volume, it’s strong on harmony groups, uptempo dancers and quirky one-offs from the vivid imagination of...
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Doré - L.A. Soul Sides Vol.1 (CD) Various: Doré - L.A. Soul Sides Vol.1 (CD) Art-Nr.: CDKEND415

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(Ace Records) 24 Tracks - 20 page color booklet - Lew Bedell’s Doré label only occasionally dabbled with black music in its early years. It was not until the British beat invasion of 1964 that soul acts were consciously sought out, so...
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On The Soul Side (CD) Various: On The Soul Side (CD) Art-Nr.: CDKEND473

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(Ace Records) 26 Tracks - 20 page color booklet - An iconic Kent vinyl album expanded to CD format with bonus soul necessities. Over the years we have been asked to issue CDs versions some of the most popular Kent LPs we put out in the...
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Planet Mod - Brit Soul, R&B & Freak Beat From The Shel Talmy Vaults (CD) Various: Planet Mod - Brit Soul, R&B & Freak Beat From... Art-Nr.: CDWIKD336

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(Big Beat UK) 24 Tracks - 20-seitiges Color Booklet - Shel Talmy is a name that any discussion of the significant stewards behind British pop’s mid-60s purple period will immediately bring to mind. Were it only for his early supervision...
$18.31
The Carolines Featuring Carell Mancuso (7inch, EP, 45rpm, PS, SC) The Carolines: The Carolines Featuring Carell Mancuso (7inch,... Art-Nr.: 45LTDEP022

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(Ace Records) 3-Track EP - Hardcover picture sleeve, 45rpm, small center hole, previously unissued 1966 recordings, mono, New York City mid-60s girl group sound!
$13.99
That's How Heartaches Are Made (LP) Baby Washington: That's How Heartaches Are Made (LP) Art-Nr.: LPCOL5124X

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(Collectables) 12 tracks - Originally sealed reproduction of the 1963 'Sue' LP album - Cut-out LP
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Her Greatest Hits Of The 60s (LP) Dionne Warwick: Her Greatest Hits Of The 60s (LP) Art-Nr.: LP1582721

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(Music For Pleasure) 16 tracks - Originally recordings from 1962 to 1970
$16.15
Shangri-Las 65 (LP) Shangri-Las: Shangri-Las 65 (LP) Art-Nr.: LP30100173

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(Charly) 12 tracks - Re-issue of the original 1965 'Red Bird' LP album
$19.39
Do It Right - The Best Of James And Bobby Purify (LP) James & Bobby Purify: Do It Right - The Best Of James And Bobby... Art-Nr.: LPALB8392X

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(Arista) 12 tracks - Originally sealed copy - Cut-out LP - Original 'Bell' recordings
$17.23
Northern Soul Story (2-CD) Various: Northern Soul Story (2-CD) Art-Nr.: CDJAS750

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(Jasmine) 50 tracks.
$18.31
Rockin' Soul - Love Corporation (CD) The Hues Corporation: Rockin' Soul - Love Corporation (CD) Art-Nr.: CDSML8539

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(Vocalion) 20 tracks - Two original albums from 1974 and 1975 on one CD
$19.39
Road Food - No. 10 (CD) The Guess Who: Road Food - No. 10 (CD) Art-Nr.: CDSML8538

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(Vocalion) 17 tracks - Two original albums from 1973 and 1974 on one CD
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Why Can't We Be Friends ? (CD) The War: Why Can't We Be Friends ? (CD) Art-Nr.: CDR271051

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(Rhino) 9 tracks 1975
$53.95
The World Is A Ghetto (CD) The War: The World Is A Ghetto (CD) Art-Nr.: CDR271043

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(Rhino) 6 tracks (44:12) 1972
$26.95
All Day Music (CD) The War: All Day Music (CD) Art-Nr.: CDR271042

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(Rhino) 7 tracks 1971
$53.95
Wack Wack (LP) Young Holt Unlimited: Wack Wack (LP) Art-Nr.: LPKENT062

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(MCA) 10 tracks - Originally sealed soundtrack LP album from 1983 - Cut-out LP (Kent) 16 tracks - Original 'Brunswick' recordings from the 1960s Around 1965 bassist Eldee Young, and drummer Isaac 'Red• Holt split from their pianist and...
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Great Googa Mooga (2-CD) Lee Dorsey: Great Googa Mooga (2-CD) Art-Nr.: CDNEV3

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(Charly Records) 40 Tracks - Charly R&B Series! Anthology 1960-1978!
$26.95
Baby I've Got It!: More Motown Girls (CD) Various: Baby I've Got It!: More Motown Girls (CD) Art-Nr.: CDTOP1524

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(Ace) 24 tracks. Many moons have passed since our last 'Motown Girls' project was released – but these things take time and a great deal of patience. We’re confident followers of the series will find this new volume well worth the wait....
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Go Ahead & Back Up (CD) Bobby Darin: Go Ahead & Back Up (CD) Art-Nr.: CDRGM0714

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(Real Gone Music) 24 tracks Bobby Darin joined Motown Records in 1970, inaugurating the final phase in a remarkable career that saw him transform from a rock-and-roll teen idol to a sophisticated swinger to a socially conscious folkie....
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The Who Beginnings 1 - Maximum R&B (CD) Various: The Who Beginnings 1 - Maximum R&B (CD) Art-Nr.: CDRNB009

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(HistoryOfRnB) 26 Tracks - The Who earned their first spurs with cover versions, which should influence how their sound developed. This CD sampler presents the songs and variations that inspired The Who and contains a fully illustrated...
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The Look Of Love - The Burt Bacharach Collection (2-CD) Various: The Look Of Love - The Burt Bacharach... Art-Nr.: CDWSM6242

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(Warner Strategic Marketing) 50 Tracks - Import only, compilation/tribute to one of the most highly regarded songwriters of the 20th Century. 50 tracks including, Carpenters 'Close to You', Dionne Warwick's 'I'll Never Fall in Love...
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The Classic Soul Years - 1968 (CD) Various: The Classic Soul Years - 1968 (CD) Art-Nr.: CDCSYR68

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(Connoisseur Collection) 20 tracks
$21.55
The Motown Years (CD) Gladys Knight & The Pips: The Motown Years (CD) Art-Nr.: CD5443132

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(Spectrum) 18 tracks
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Live At The Bijou (2-LP) Grover Washington, Jr.: Live At The Bijou (2-LP) Art-Nr.: LPWL72267

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(Motown) 9 tracks - Re-issue of the original 1977 'Kudu' LP album
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Stripped of their cultural heritage through slavery, the early Afro-Americans found the Church the only institution able to explain and mollify their new position. The simple life-after-death theology, delivered through par­able preaching and inspirational singing, enabled the Black Churches to flourish through the 19th century. They `Afri­canized' the early Anglican hymns in aural transmission, transmuting and reassembling them into the Negro Spirituals — the call and unison response of 'Swing Low, Sweet Chariot', the long sustained melody of 'Nobody Knows The Trouble' and the syncopated claprhythmic 'Shout All Over God's Heaven'.

The early 20th century upsurge of fundamental, sancti­fied and holiness churches in the dehumanizing industrial ghettos brought ecstatic, testifying shouts, holy dancing and musical instruments into church music. Reflecting this, the pre-depression recording boom waxed a wide range of styles of religious material, from Rev. J. M. Gates' short sermons and answering congregation, to the piano-playing evangelist singer, Arizona Dranes, to the religious blues of guitarist Blind Willie Johnson and the ruggedly harmonised versions of the spirituals by Jubilee Quartets like the Golden Gate and the Norfolk Quartets.

In the Thirties, traditional spirituals were supplanted by new gospel material. Earlier, Rev. Charles A. Tindley had published 'Stand By Me' and 'Understand It Better By and By' and Lucie Campbell produced 'Something Within Me' and 'In The Upper Room', but Thomas A. Dorsey (aka Georgia Tom) is regarded as the Father of Gospel Music. In 1932, he co-founded the National Convention of Gospel Singers which promoted the spread of material like his own `Precious Lord' and 'Peace In The Valley'. With performers like Sallie Martin, Roberta Martin and Mahalia Jackson pushing them, the sentimental, optimistic blue-note ridden gospel numbers swept the nation, finding white acceptance through artists like Red Foley and the Stamps-Baxter Quar­tet.

Though Mahalia was the 'Gospel Queen', others were important. Willie Mae Ford Smith, an instructress at Dor­sey's Conventions, taught many younger singers, like Brother Joe May, the improvising slurs, note bending and rephrasing techniques of gospel, while Sister Rosetta Tharpe took the gospelly blues 'This Train' into the race charts.

 

The golden age for gospel began in 1945.

New independent recording labels like Apollo, King and Specialty prospered issuing gospel material, radio stations featured early morning and Sunday gospel shows and the gospel highway of one-night theatre stands, church benefits and anniversary programmes, was thick with travelling groups. Run by matriarch Gertrude, the Famous Ward Singers, who used daughter Clara's arrangements, Marion Williams' solos and Rev. W. Herbert Brewster's material like `Move On Up A Little Higher' and their rivals, Albertina Walker's Caravans, who nurtured current solo stars including Shirley Caesar, Inez Andrews, Dorothy Norwood, and, more briefly, James Cleveland and Bessie Griffin, featured strong emotional lead singers in front of imaginative background harmonies, usu­ally accompanied by simple piano or organ lines. Clara Ward exerted a considerable stylistic influence on the young

Aretha Franklin, whose first recordings were made in her father's (Rev. C. L. Franklin) New Bethel Church. Others, like the Consolers with ethereal guitar and organ-backed versions of 'heart warming spiritual hymns' like `Waiting For My Child' and the early Staple Singers, of the hillbilly harmony 'Will The Circle Be Unbroken', appealed more to southern audiences.

Male acappella 'quartets' were also developing. Using gos­pel material and a second tenor to complete the four part harmony behind the high clear tenor voice of Rebert Harris, the Soul Stirrers gave gospel and—through Sam Cooke—soul music, one of its lasting styles. Likewise, the contrast of Claude Jeter's falsetto and the harsh shouter leads of the Swan Silvertones presaged the Temptations, while the devil-demolishing ecstatic screams of the Five Blind Boys' Archie Brownlee were picked up by the young James Brown, whose stage movements could be a parody of the frenzied move­ment of Ira Tucker of the Dixie Hummingbirds.

The end of acappella came with the addition of guitarists, like Howard Carroll of the Dixie Hummingbirds, and in the Sixties popular groups like the Mighty Clouds Of Joy and the Violinaires used falsetto harmony behind the preaching lead voices of Joe Ligon and Robert Blair respectively. Now the instrumentation of gospel groups can be as full as soul groups, enabling the Rance Allen Group to rework secular hits, alongside the smooth jubilee hymns of the Harmonising Four or the cool sophisticated homophonic Voices-Supreme.

James Cleveland's 'Love Of God' with the Voices Of Tabernacle and 'Peace Be Still' with the Angelic Choir in the Sixties ushered in the era of choirs and soloists, with his Gospel Music Convention promoting large interdenomina­tional choirs, and the surprising pop success of the Edwin Hawkins Singers' Oh Happy Day'.

Stripped of their cultural heritage through slavery, the early Afro-Americans found the Church the only institution able to explain and mollify their new position. The simple life-after-death... read more »
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Gospel Music

Stripped of their cultural heritage through slavery, the early Afro-Americans found the Church the only institution able to explain and mollify their new position. The simple life-after-death theology, delivered through par­able preaching and inspirational singing, enabled the Black Churches to flourish through the 19th century. They `Afri­canized' the early Anglican hymns in aural transmission, transmuting and reassembling them into the Negro Spirituals — the call and unison response of 'Swing Low, Sweet Chariot', the long sustained melody of 'Nobody Knows The Trouble' and the syncopated claprhythmic 'Shout All Over God's Heaven'.

The early 20th century upsurge of fundamental, sancti­fied and holiness churches in the dehumanizing industrial ghettos brought ecstatic, testifying shouts, holy dancing and musical instruments into church music. Reflecting this, the pre-depression recording boom waxed a wide range of styles of religious material, from Rev. J. M. Gates' short sermons and answering congregation, to the piano-playing evangelist singer, Arizona Dranes, to the religious blues of guitarist Blind Willie Johnson and the ruggedly harmonised versions of the spirituals by Jubilee Quartets like the Golden Gate and the Norfolk Quartets.

In the Thirties, traditional spirituals were supplanted by new gospel material. Earlier, Rev. Charles A. Tindley had published 'Stand By Me' and 'Understand It Better By and By' and Lucie Campbell produced 'Something Within Me' and 'In The Upper Room', but Thomas A. Dorsey (aka Georgia Tom) is regarded as the Father of Gospel Music. In 1932, he co-founded the National Convention of Gospel Singers which promoted the spread of material like his own `Precious Lord' and 'Peace In The Valley'. With performers like Sallie Martin, Roberta Martin and Mahalia Jackson pushing them, the sentimental, optimistic blue-note ridden gospel numbers swept the nation, finding white acceptance through artists like Red Foley and the Stamps-Baxter Quar­tet.

Though Mahalia was the 'Gospel Queen', others were important. Willie Mae Ford Smith, an instructress at Dor­sey's Conventions, taught many younger singers, like Brother Joe May, the improvising slurs, note bending and rephrasing techniques of gospel, while Sister Rosetta Tharpe took the gospelly blues 'This Train' into the race charts.

 

The golden age for gospel began in 1945.

New independent recording labels like Apollo, King and Specialty prospered issuing gospel material, radio stations featured early morning and Sunday gospel shows and the gospel highway of one-night theatre stands, church benefits and anniversary programmes, was thick with travelling groups. Run by matriarch Gertrude, the Famous Ward Singers, who used daughter Clara's arrangements, Marion Williams' solos and Rev. W. Herbert Brewster's material like `Move On Up A Little Higher' and their rivals, Albertina Walker's Caravans, who nurtured current solo stars including Shirley Caesar, Inez Andrews, Dorothy Norwood, and, more briefly, James Cleveland and Bessie Griffin, featured strong emotional lead singers in front of imaginative background harmonies, usu­ally accompanied by simple piano or organ lines. Clara Ward exerted a considerable stylistic influence on the young

Aretha Franklin, whose first recordings were made in her father's (Rev. C. L. Franklin) New Bethel Church. Others, like the Consolers with ethereal guitar and organ-backed versions of 'heart warming spiritual hymns' like `Waiting For My Child' and the early Staple Singers, of the hillbilly harmony 'Will The Circle Be Unbroken', appealed more to southern audiences.

Male acappella 'quartets' were also developing. Using gos­pel material and a second tenor to complete the four part harmony behind the high clear tenor voice of Rebert Harris, the Soul Stirrers gave gospel and—through Sam Cooke—soul music, one of its lasting styles. Likewise, the contrast of Claude Jeter's falsetto and the harsh shouter leads of the Swan Silvertones presaged the Temptations, while the devil-demolishing ecstatic screams of the Five Blind Boys' Archie Brownlee were picked up by the young James Brown, whose stage movements could be a parody of the frenzied move­ment of Ira Tucker of the Dixie Hummingbirds.

The end of acappella came with the addition of guitarists, like Howard Carroll of the Dixie Hummingbirds, and in the Sixties popular groups like the Mighty Clouds Of Joy and the Violinaires used falsetto harmony behind the preaching lead voices of Joe Ligon and Robert Blair respectively. Now the instrumentation of gospel groups can be as full as soul groups, enabling the Rance Allen Group to rework secular hits, alongside the smooth jubilee hymns of the Harmonising Four or the cool sophisticated homophonic Voices-Supreme.

James Cleveland's 'Love Of God' with the Voices Of Tabernacle and 'Peace Be Still' with the Angelic Choir in the Sixties ushered in the era of choirs and soloists, with his Gospel Music Convention promoting large interdenomina­tional choirs, and the surprising pop success of the Edwin Hawkins Singers' Oh Happy Day'.

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